‘Rufus' means 'reddish or reddish-brown'. Lactarius rufus has an unzoned, mature cap that is chestnut-reddish with a small umbo in depressed center. Downy margin in young specimens. Crowded, somewhat decurrent gills, cream becoming reddish-brown. Stipe concolorous with cap, but paler and white at base. White flesh. Latex abundant in young specimens, white, with quickly ACRID taste. In CONIFEROUS woods. Not typically eaten in N.A., but edible if boiled for at least ten minutes prior to pickling, salting, freezing, etc. It can also be dried, crushed and used as a seasoning powder. Our species may not be the same as the European version, after which ours was named.