This order is represented by two families here: the Thelephoraceae and the Bankeraceae. Fungi in these two families have ‘teeth’ or ‘spines’ under the cap. This is where their spores are produced. They include toothed fungi like species of Bankera, Boletopsis, Hynellum, Phellodon and Sarcodon as well as sturdy fan or vase-shaped mushrooms like the Thelephora species. Notice that the ‘toothed’ Hydnums are not included among the genera depicted here. That is because they are more closely related to chanterelles. Unlike the hydnums, very few of the hydnellums are considered suitable for the cooking pot or pan. There are other fungi in other orders which are also described as having teeth or spines. For the most par they grow from wood and are decomposers. Fungi in the Thelephorales order, however, are mycorrhizal partners with trees. They grow from the ground near the trees they are associated with and frequently encompass any sticks, or plants above them. This is called ‘ indeterminate’ growth.  Their hypha are wrapped around the roots of tree partners and provide them with water and nutrients in exchange for sugars produced by the tree through photosynthesis.

Click on the images below to see the individual species of each family that can be found in the northeast.