LACTARIUS SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS                                             COMMON TO NORTHEAST NA

By Dianna Smith

Lactarius affinis Peck Sticky to viscid, smooth, convex dull ochre-yellow to yellow-brown cap, slightly paler margin., and depressed disc. Off-white to cream gills. Close, subdecurrent, often forked near stem apex. Latex white, not staining or changing color. White spore print. Fruits in summer and fall. In hardwood and coniferous forests. Acrid taste. Not poisonous, but not edible.

 Lactarius argillaceifolius (Hessler & Smith)

Drab medium to large lilac-brown to lilac-tan smooth, sticky to dry cap with depressed disc, and inrolled margin becoming pinkish-tan in the center. It has close, broad cream subdecurrent gills that age pinkish tan toward the margin. Off-white latex discolors flesh tan to grayish-brown. Spore print is pinkish-buff. Pale stem develops brown spots with handling. Slightly acrid taste. Edibility unknown. Mycorrhizal with hardwood, especially oak. Common in oak-hickory woods summer and autumn.

 Lactarius aspideoides (Burl.)

Pale sulphur-yellow glutinous firm cap with depressed center and inrolled margin that becomes funnel-shaped with maturity and bears differently hued yellow concentric zones. Gills are close, broadly attached to sticky yellow stem, off-white to cream becoming yellow-spotted. Voluminous white latex that stains flesh lilac. White to pale yellow spore print. Fruits in summer and autumn in hardwood and in coniferous forests. 'Aspideoides' means 'shield-like'. Bitter-tasting.

Lactarius atroviridus (Peck)

Medium to large olive-greenish-brown with a blackish sticky center and rugose and somewhat scurfy zoned cap. Initially convex with an inrolled margin becoming flat and centrally depressed with maturity. Attached whitish-buff gills are close, white, often forked and of varying lengths. They bruise and stain greenish with age. Stipe is concolorus and scrobiculate. Latex is voluminous, white and unchanging, but stains gills green. Spores are white to cream. Associated with hardwoods, especially oaks? Fruits in late summer and fall. Acrid or bitter taste. Inedible.

 Lactarius camphoratus

Small red-brown moist to dry convex depressed cap with knob and inrolled margin that becomes scalloped with age. Gills are reddish-brown, close, subdecurrent, cream to light reddish-brown and bruise pale red-brown. Stem is color of cap, but paler at apex, and hairy at the base, as well as thin and hollow. Latex is sparse and white to watery. No color change. Spore print is pale yellow. Can be found in mixed forests and in moss during summer and fall. Odor or maple syrup, burnt sugar or curry especially on drying. Taste is smoky and mild.

Lactarius chelidonium var. chelidonioides (Hessler & Smith)

Medium mud-blue with a sticky orange-brown smooth zoned cap with inrolled margin and convex becoming yellow-orange-brown to greenish (with handling), flat to shallowly funnel-shaped with a shallowly depressed central disc. Gills are dull orange-greenish-blue and bruise or stain dark olive-green. Stem is paler concolorous with the cap and dry. Latex is sparse, bright yellow becoming yellow-brown. Spores are pale buff to yellow-orange. Found under conifers (pines) in late summer and autumn. Taste is mild to slowly peppery. Edible.

 

 Lactarius chrysorrheus (Fr.)

Small to medium smooth, faintly zoned, viscid white-cinnamon-buff convex cap becoming flat with watery orange-cinnamon spots especially in the central sticky depression. Flesh is white.  Whitish-buff to pale yellow close gills. No spotting or staining on gills. Stem is off-white-pinkish and dry. Voluminous cream-white latex turns yellow immediately on exposure to air. Spore print is pale buff to yellowish. Under hardwoods, especially oaks, in late summer and fall. Acrid taste. Poisonous.

 Lactarius cinereus (Peck)

This is small and has a sticky pale cream-gray-brown glabrous cap with a depressed darker sometimes olivaceous center and paler incurved margin, which becomes flattish and slightly vase-shaped at maturity. Gills are whitish then cream colored, close, narrow, or varying lengths and subdecurrent. Stipe is concolorous with cap only paler, especially at the apex, becomes hollow and base is slightly clavate. Latex white becoming whey-like, but scanty to moderate and mild to somewhat acrid and dries pale cream. Spore print is cream. Found growing in association with beech summer through autumn. Inedible. 

 Lactifluus corrugis (Peck) “Corrugated Milky Cap”

Medium to large pruinose convex, dry dark brownish-red cap with a shallow depression becoming deeply rugose (wrinkled) and flat to somewhat funnel-shaped with maturity. It has attached to somewhat decurrent close buff gills that become orange-brown with age. Stipe is smooth, pruinose, firm and paler but concolorous with the cap. Off-white flesh color. Latex is voluminous and unchanging, but stains tissues brown (like L. volemus, and L. luteolus). Handling also stains tissues brown. Spore print is white. Found under hardwoods in summer and fall. Lacks distinctive odor or smells vaguely fishy. Taste is mild. Choice edible.

 Lactarius croceus (Burlingham)

Medium bright orange faint to moderately zoned, convex cap with an inrolled margin becoming funnel-shaped in age with a slightly darker viscid central depression. Gills are moderately well-spaced to subdistant and cream to light creamy-yellow. Sparse white latex turns yellow on exposure to air and stains gills orange-yellow. Stem is paler than color of cap, somewhat viscid and is not scrobiculate. Spore print is pale yellow. No parts bruise or stain green with handling or age. Can be found in summer and fall under hardwoods. Has a fruity odor. Taste is slightly bitter to acrid. Mycorrhizal with oaks and other hardwoods summer and fall.

Lactifluus deceptivus

Large white, convex cap with cottony inrolled margin becoming vase-shaped with a depressed sticky more brownish disc with maturity. Cap ‘hairs’ and stipe also bruise brownish. Cream-white gills are somewhat close, attached and slightly decurrent. White voluminous latex is unchanging, but discolors flesh tan to brownish. Stipe is white, short compared with L. piperatus and firm. Spore print is off-white. Common is summer and fall under hemlock or oak. Taste is acrid. Odor is pungent. Inedible. Look-a-likes include Lactarius piperatus (Lactifluus piperatus), which has extremely close gills, and Lactifluus subvellereus (Lactarius subvellerus) (which lacks the cottony roll of tissue on the cap margin).

 Lactarius deterrimus

Medium-sized smooth zoned convex cap with inrolled margin becoming flat with depressed sticky disc. Orange gills. Orange latex. Orange stipe. All parts stain green. Spores are pale ochre. It looks superficially similar to the European Lactarius deliciosus, but TURNS GREENER overall. Stipe has also white ring-like mark at apex. There are NO CIRCULAR PITS on stem. Flesh turns darker orange-red on exposure. It can be found under spruce and other conifers in mountainous regions. Taste is acrid. Edible, but not as good as the European Lactarius deliciosus.

 Lactarius fuliginosus “Sooty Milky Cap”

Medium-sized dry, velvety grayish-brown to buff convex cap becoming flat with a small central depression and darker spotting, except for the paler margin. Sometimes wrinkled in center while margin becomes grooved. Olive-buff to pinkish-buff gills are attached to slightly decurrent and crowded. Stipe is a paler version of the cap color, whiter at the apex and at the base, longer than the cap is wide, even, but tapered at the base. Sparse white latex that dries pink. Flesh stains pinkish with handling. Spore print is a pinkish-buff. Associated with hardwoods. Taste is slightly acrid. Inedible and possibly poisonous. Has potential insecticidal properties.

 Lactarius fumeacolor Burlington

Medium to large mostly smooth, pink-gray viscid convex cap, with paler cream to almost yellowish central depression, becoming funnel-shaped with maturity. Gills are white to cream, close, narrow and attached to somewhat decurrent. It has voluminous white latex, which stains gills and flesh yellow-brown. Stipe smooth, cream, spotting yellow to yellow-brown. Found under hardwoods from spring through fall. Not common. Unknown edibility.

 Lactarius fumosus “Smoky Milk Cap”

Medium sized dry cap that is dull light pale buff-brown with paler patches. Convex becoming flat with irregular paler margin and darker central disc. Gills are crowded to close, attached, slightly decurrent, and white to buff. Stem is color of cap, dry with a paler base, longer than the cap is wide and turns pinkish with handling. White latex that doesn’t change color, but stains gills and flesh pinkish-red. Spore print is cream to buff. Can be found summer and fall in mixed forests. Taste is mild to somewhat acrid. Lookalikes include Lactarius subplinthogalus and Lactarius fuliginosus.

Lactarius gerardii var. gerardii (Peck)

Medium convex dry, smooth and vaguely velvety brown umbonate and wrinkled cap becoming flattish with central depression, and a scalloped margin. Distant gills are white and decurrent. Stem is concolorous with cap, smooth, slightly velvety, dry, paler at the apex and becomes hollow. Spore print is white. Latex is white, unchanging and quite voluminous.  Can be found in summer and fall in mixed forests and under hardwoods, especially oak.  Taste is mild to somewhat acrid.

 Lactarius gerardii var. subrubescens

Medium convex dry, smooth medium to dark brown cap with a small umbo, wrinkled pellicle and a somewhat scalloped margin. Distant gills are different lengths, broad, white and decurrent. Stem is concolorous with cap, smooth, slightly velvety, dry, paler at tapered base and become hollow. Spore print is white. Latex is voluminous, white and stains flesh reddish-pink.  Can be found in summer and fall in mixed forests. Taste is mild to somewhat acrid.

 Lactarius glaucascens

Medium to large white dry, smooth convex cap with inrolled margin becoming flat with depressed center and showing brown spotting. Gills are white to cream. Stem is white and dry. Latex is white and moderately flowing. It gradually turns blue-green on exposure to air. Found in summer and fall. Acrid taste. Inedible.

Lactarius glysiosmus

Small smooth beige-gray-lilac-pinkish viscid convex cap with somewhat hairy inrolled margin and depressed knobbed center becoming flat. Gills are buff-beige-pink. Flesh and gills bruise brownish. Latex is moderately sparse and white becoming watery. Stem is color of cap but paler. Spore print is creamy-white. Can be found with conifers and birch in late summer and fall. Odor of coconut. Taste is mild to slightly acrid.

 Lactarius griseus Peck

Small gray-brown-pink dry hairy convex cap with darker brown radiating scales in center, with a depressed disc sporting a small knob, becoming flattish with age. Gills are of varying size, moderately-well spaced, cream to pale yellowish, forked at stipe apex and sub-decurrent. Stipe is dry and a pinkish-tan and becomes hollow. White latex is sparse and dries pale yellowish. Spore print is pale yellow. Fruits in autumn. It is found in mossy bogs and in humus is associated with conifers. Taste is slightly acrid. Unknown edibility.

 Lactarius helvus (= Lactarius aquifluus)

Medium fawn to pale pinkish-brown velvety, dry convex cap with inrolled margin, becoming slightly roughened, flat then slightly funnel-shaped with a shallow depressed central disc. White to pale pinkish-cinnamon close, narrow gills of varying lengths, subdecurrent and often forked at stem apex. Stem is long relative to width of the cap, pruinose and paler than cap color. Has clear, watery latex that is moderate to scanty in volume, and that doesn’t change color or stain. Spore print is buff. Grows in damp areas and in sphagnum moss under conifers and birch in summer and fall. Taste is mild. Smells of camphor, maple syrup, fenugreek or curry, especially on drying. Flesh is light pinkish or brownish.Mild tasting.

The more red-brown Lactarius quietus var. incanus also has an odor of maple syrup, but is more common in the southern states and its latex is white. Species names means 'honey-yellow'. Toxic when eaten raw. Another lookalike is Lactarius camphoratus, which is much smaller.

Lactarius hepaticus Plowright

Small moist, smooth, convex, glabrous, dark chestnut red-brown cap with inrolled margin and a shallowly depressed darker center, which sometimes bears a small umbo. Flattens and sometimes has crenulate margin with maturity. Attached to sub-decurrent closely-spaced gills that are pinkish-buff and age pinkish-red. Stem is color of cap occasionally with a paler apex and a somewhat rugose-hairy base. Sparse latex is white not changing or slowly becoming yellow. Spore print is cream. Can be found in mossy damp areas under conifers, especially hemlock, in summer and autumn. Taste is mild to slowly acrid. Unknown edibility.

 Lactarius hibbardiae (Peck)

Medium wine-brown to pinkish-gray-buff faintly zoned convex dry, pruinose cap often with slight central knob and with an inrolled margin becoming flat, then somewhat funnel-shaped and wavy in age. Gills are crowded to close, somewhat decurrent, cream to pinkish-buff. Latex is white becoming watery. Dry, pruinose stipe is color of cap but paler at the tapered base and becomes hollow. Spore print is whitish to cream. Can be found in mixed forests, often in sphagnum moss summer and fall. Has an odor of anise or coconut especially on drying. Taste is acrid. Unknown edibility.

 Lactifluus hygrophoroides

Medium sized broadly convex smooth, dry orange-brown cap with slightly darker depressed center becoming somewhat funnel-shaped in age. Latex white, voluminous and not changing or staining flesh or gills.  White to cream or pale yellowish-buff, broad, distant and somewhat decurrent gills. Stem is dry and a paler shade of cap color. White spore print. Can be found under hardwoods in summer and fall. Mild taste. Edible.      

Lactarius imperceptus Beardslee & Burlingham

Azonate light pinkish-brown, reddish-brown to cinnamon brown convex cap with inrolled margin and knob, becoming flat then subinfudibuliform. Gills are attached to somewhat decurrent pinkish-white and brown staining. Stipe is smooth, paler concolorous with cap, becoming darker with handling and with age. Flesh is thin, whitish, bruising yellowish. Latex is white to cream and often becomes yellowish, although very slowly. Spore print is pale whitish-cream. Found with hardwoods, especially oaks in summer and autumn. Taste is acrid.

 Lactarius indigo

Large blue convex zoned cap with inrolled margin that becomes flat to slightly funnel-shaped with sticky central depressed disc and silvery-blue overall with age. Gills are indigo blue and closely spaced. Stem is same color as cap, dry and scrobiculate. Latex is bright neon indigo blue and sparse to moderate. It becomes slowly turns flesh green. Spore print is yellow to orange-yellow. Can be found in summer and fall in oak and pine woods. Taste is slightly bitter. Edible.

 Lactarius lignyotus “Chocolate Milk Cap”

Medium sized dark brown, smooth to rugose, velvety convex and knobbed and slightly depressed cap center with inrolled margin becoming flat. White gills become pale yellowish, are close to sub-distant, slightly decurrent and are sometimes edged brownish near stipe. Stem is brown, velvety, smooth and relatively long compared with width of cap. Top of stem exhibits reticulating lines which appear to be extensions of the gills. Base of stipe is white. Watery white latex is thin. Discolors and stains flesh pinkish-red. Spore print is ochre. Under conifers in late summer and fall. Mild to slightly acrid taste. Lookalikes include Lactarius gerardii var. subrubescens, Lactarius fumosus and Lactarius fuliginosus.

 Lactarius luridus (Pers.) Gray

Medium convex viscid smooth brownish-ochre spotted cap with zonations and central depression lightly stained lavender to blue-purple. Flesh becoming blue-lilac on cutting. Cream gills forked at stipe apex and stained where handled bright blue-purple. Stem even, pruinose and cream colored stuffed and colored orange with basal orange mycelium. Latex white staining flesh purple. Spores are cream. Found with conifers including spruce and balsam as well as aspen hardwoods in autumn. Rare. Inedible. Similar especially to Lactarius chelidonium, but also to Lactarius uvidus and Lactarius maculatus.

 Lactifluus luteolus (Peck) “Fishy Buff Milk Cap”

Small to medium sized dry, somewhat pruinose white to buff colored convex cap becoming flat with a slight depression. White to cream gills bruise and stain brownish. Voluminous watery white latex discolors flesh dark brownish. Spore deposit is white to cream. Stem is like cap in being white to buff, dry, and somewhat velutinous. Taste is mild. Edible.

There is an odor of fish or crustaceans in mature fruitbodies. Can be found in mixed and hardwood forests in summer and autumn, especially where there are streams and the soil is sandy. Related to Lactifluus volemus, which also stains brown and has a fishy odor.

 Lactarius maculatipes (Burl.)

Medium cream-yellow to yellow-pink smooth, vaguely zoned convex viscid cap darker in center becoming flat then funnel-shaped with sticky depressed center. White to pinkish-buff close, narrow gills fork at stipe apex and are decurrent. White latex becoming pale yellow. Spore print is pinkish-buff. Viscid stem with scrobiculations (potholes) tapers at the base. Under hardwoods, especially oaks. Summer and fall. Bitter. Inedible.

 Lactarius maculatus

Medium to large zoned, smooth gray-buff to dull gray to brownish-lavender convex cap with central depression becoming flat then vase-shaped and bearing rings of spots close to the margin.  White to cream gills, sometimes forked, are slightly decurrent. White to creamy white latex stains tissues lilac. Stem is paler than cap, smooth, scrobiculate and hollow with maturity. Spore print is white. Can be found in mixed and hardwood forests in summer and autumn. Taste is mildly to strongly acrid. Unknown edibility.

Lactarius mammosus

Small to medium sized convex, smooth, slightly squamulose and slightly zoned, dry dark gray to gray-brown cap with depressed center becoming flat. White flesh. Pale ochre-cream gills are narrow and crowded. Stipe is light gray to pinkish-brown, white at the tapered base and becoming hollow. Spore print is white. Latex is white and unchanging. Commonly found in coniferous forests as well as with birch and popular in late summer and early fall. Usually has the odor of coconut or anise. Taste is pungent. Inedible. The similar Lactarius glysiosmus is lighter in color and smaller with a stronger coconut odor.

 Lactarius mucidus var. mucidoides (Burl.)

Medium smooth, gray-brown viscid convex cap with inrolled margin becoming flat with depressed darker and slightly knobbed central disc. Gills are white. Latex is white and voluminous, but dries gray-blue-green and discolors flesh tan to brownish. Stipe is color of cap, thin and sticky. Spore print is cream. It is found under conifers in summer and fall. Taste is acrid.

 Lactarius mutabilis (Peck)

Medium smooth, zonate, pale to dark-brown convex viscid cap becoming flat with central depression and slightly wooly margin. Gills are white becoming yellowish. Watery white latex discolors or stains pinkish-reddish to cinnamon. Smooth concolorous stem is dry. Spore print is whitish-cream. Odor of burnt sugar or maple syrup. Taste is mild. Easy to confuse with Lactarius quietus var. incanus.

 Lactarius oculatus (Peck) Burl. “Eyespot Milky Cap”

Small smooth, red-brown knobbed convex sticky cap becoming flat to funnel-shaped with pointed umbo in darker depressed center. Attached close, broad gills are pale pinkish-cream, slightly decurrent and stain pinkish cinnamon. Sparse whey-like latex. Stipe is pinkish-cinnamon, has basal white mycelium and hollows with age. Spore print is pale yellowish. Found in late summer and fall. Taste is slowly acrid. In sphagnum moss under conifers in summer and fall.

 Lactarius peckii (Burl.) “Peck’s Milky”

Medium to large smooth, dry, zoned, brown-red broadly convex cap with inrolled margin and central knob on sticky, depressed disc. Stem is concolorous.  And white voluminous latex. Bitter. Inedible.

 Lactifluus piperatus

Large white to off-white smooth, dry convex cap with inrolled margin becoming flat with a dry depressed central disc. Gills are off-white to pale cream, very close and narrow. Latex white and voluminous. Stipe is white, dry, firm and long. White spore print. Inedible. Common in summer and fall. Acrid taste. Inedible. The similar-looking Lactarius deceptivus has a cottony margin, shorter stipe and tends to brown.

Lactarius psammicola

Zonate ochraceous-orange cap with hairy margin that is initially inrolled. Off-white, narrow gills are close, subdecurrent and becoming ochre with maturity. Voluminous white latex slowly stains white paper yellowis. Spores are yellow. Stipe is whitish, sometimes with orange scrobiculations. Mixed conifers and hardoods

 Lactarius psammicola var. glaber (Hessler & A.H. Smith)

Medium to large orange and cream zoned convex viscid cap with slightly pubescent inrolled margin and depressed center becoming funnel-shaped and glabrous. Gills are pinkish-buff, narrow, close, sometimes forked, somewhat decurrent and become darker yellow-orange with age. Flesh sometimes bruises pinkish-brown. Stem is short and whitish with pot holes. Latex is sparse, whey-like and slowly stains gills pinkish-cinnamon. Spore print is pinkish-cream. Grows gregariously under hardwoods, especially oaks. Taste is very acrid. Inedible. Like Lactarius psammicola, which has a hairier margin.

 

Lactarius pubescens var. pubescens, Fries, “Downy Milky”

Medium to large white to cream dry convex cap having a sticky depressed center and a coarsely hairy inrolled margin that becomes flat to vase-shaped, somewhat smoother overall and more pinkish-orange on the disc with maturity. The white to cream gills are crowded, attached to subdecurrent, acquire a pale pinkish cast and bruise ochre-brown. The stipe is initially whitish and smooth, becoming hollow and yellow-brown from the base upward with a pinkish tinge at the apex. The spore print color is a pale pinkish cream. The latex is white, non-staining and unchanging. Lactarius pubescens can be found in damp areas under hardwoods, especially birch. Taste is acrid. Edibility unknown.

Lactarius pubescens var. betulae Hessler & Smith

Medium to large pale-yellow-blush (or orangish) convex cap that becomes funnel-shaped with a smooth central sticky depression and a hairy margin. Gills are whitish-yellow and subdecurrent. Stem is glabrous, apex is pale pink, base is ochre. May spot brownish. Latex is white to cream and changes to yellowish. Flesh is pale pinkish-white with yellowish staining. Spore print is cream. Under paper birch in late summer and fall. Fragrant odor sweet, of geraniums. Taste is slowly acrid. Lactarius torminosus has more orange-pink cap. Spore size is larger.

Lactarius pyrogalus Fries

Small to medium lightly zoned gray-brown to pink-gray cap. Gills are cream becoming ochre, attached, sub-distant and slightly decurrent. Whitish flesh. Stipe is smooth, viscid to dry, paler than cap color. Latex is white, but dries olive-green to blue-green. Spore print is ochre. Under hardwoods, especially hornbeam and hazelnut in summer and fall. Odor is pleasantly sweet but taste is pungent. Inedible.

 Lactarius quietus var. incanus (Smith and Hessler)

Small to medium mostly smooth, slightly zoned convex wine or lilac-brown-gray cap with darker, sticky, depressed center and paler margin becoming flat to funnel-shaped with age. Margin slightly fibrillose. Whitish-pinkish close, narrow gills are forked at stipe apex. Latex is watery-white of moderate volume, unchanging, but stains pale pinkish gills a darker reddish-cinnamon. Stem is color of cap, dry, darker at the apex and paler at the base. Spore print is cream-white. Under hardwoods, especially oaks and beech in summer and fall. Somewhat fragrant with odor of maple syrup or burnt sugar. Slowly somewhat acrid taste.

Lactarius rimosellus

Small to medium convex brownish-red, slightly depressed cap becoming flat and then funnel-shaped with a cracked or areolate pellicle. Off-white gills are decurrent, narrow and sometimes forked near the stipe apex. Stem is concolorous with the cap, dry, subglabrous, tapered at the base and becomes hollow with maturity. Flesh is thin and off-white. Latex is white and unchanging. Spore print is cream. Under hardwoods, especially beech and oak in summer and early autumn. Uncommon. Odor is somewhat sweet to somewhat unpleasant. Inedible.

 Lactarius rufus (Fries) “Red Hot Milky”

Small to medium dry, pruinose and sometimes lightly zoned, dark reddish-brown convex cap with inrolled margin, a small umbo in its shallowly depressed disc becoming flat and then somewhat funnel-shaped. Off-white to pinkish-buff sub-decurrent narrow gills darken with age. Stem is a paler color of the cap, dry and whitish at the base. Becomes hollow with age. Voluminous white latex reddens with age. Cream spore print. In sphagnum moss under conifers, especially pines, from June through fall. Taste is slowly, but extremely acrid, perhaps the acridest of all Lactarius species. Not recommended for eating.

 Lactarius salmonicolor R. Heim & Leclair

Medium to large orange glabrous zoned convex cap with inrolled margin becoming funnel-shaped with a viscid depressed disc in center. Gills are orange. Stem has scrobiculations (pot holes), and is orange, but paler at the apex. Latex is sparse to moderate and orange-red. No change in color with exposure to air. Found associated with conifers in summer and fall. Taste is mild. Edible.

Lactarius sordidus (Peck), “Ugly Milk-cap”

Olive-brown convex, zoned cap with inrolled margin becoming flat to subinfundibuliform with a viscid, blackish depressed center. Gills are buff and discolor brownish. Latex white but turns brownish-green on exposure to air. The stipe is olive-brown and scrobiculate. Spore print is dull white. Mycorrhizal in mixed forests in summer and fall, but usually associated with birch. Often covered in dirt and debris. Taste is acrid.

 

 Lactarius subplinthogalus

Small or medium sized white-gray-brown convex viscid, smooth cap becoming flat to funnel-shaped with sticky and wrinkled depressed center and a scalloped margin. White latex stains and flesh salmon-pink and dries pink. Gills are creamy, broad, decurrent and distant. Stem is color of cap or paler and becomes hollow. Spore print is cream-buff. Under hardwoods. Taste is usually acrid. Unknown edibility.

 Lactarius subpurpureus

Medium sized smooth convex zoned cap that is pale wine-red that becomes flat with a depressed center and mottled green. Pinkish to wine-red gills. Latex is brownish-red and sparse becoming green. Stem is same color as cap and spotted with scrobiculations. Cream spore print. Stains green. Mild to peppery taste. Found under conifers in summer and fall.

 Lactarius subvellereus

Large white-buff dry, velutinous, convex cap becoming vase-shaped. Voluminous white latex discolors flesh tan to red-brownish. Close white to cream gills. Stem is white, dry, short and firm. White spore print. Can be found in summer and fall. Bitterly acrid taste. Inedible.

 Lactarius subvellereus var. subdistans

Small to medium sized velutinous, whitish convex cap with inrolled margin becoming depressed on central disc. Gills are sub-distant, white-to cream and stain brown. White latex is voluminous and stains brown. Stem is white, short and firm. Fruits in summer and fall with hardwoods, especially oak in summer and autumn. Bitter taste. Inedible.

 Lactarius subvernalis var. cokeri Hessler & Smith

Medium sized suede-like white to grayish-buff convex dry cap that becomes flat with a shallow central depression. Gills are white to buff, attached to subdecurrent, crowded and forked at stipe apex. Stipe is off-whitish, becoming hollow. Off-white tissues bruise salmon-pink with cutting or handling. Pale buff-yellow spore print. Unchanging white latex slowly stains salmon-pink. Mild to slightly and slowly acrid (taste for 2 min.) Under hardwoods, especially oaks.

 Lactarius thyinos A.H. Smith

This is a bright orange small to medium sized faintly zoned fruitbody with an inrolled margin and orange latex, which is unchanging.  (It is the only orange lactarius with orange milk that doesn't turn green with handling or staining). The cap is convex initially and expands and flattens or becomes somewhat vase-shaped with a central sticky depression by maturity. Orange gills are attached and sometimes subdecurrent. Orange latex gradually stains gills reddish. Stipe, which often has scrobiculations (depressed pot holes) is sticky at apex and has a tapered base. Stem hollows with age. Spore print is light yellow in color. Common in swampy areas under conifers, especially Northern White cedar in summer and fall. Slightly fragrant. Mild taste. Edible. 

 Lactarius torminosus (Schaeff.: Fr.) (Type species for Lactarius)

Medium to large pale yellow-salmon-blush (center) colored somewhat zonate convex cap with glabrous depressed viscid center and hairy margin becoming flat, then funnel-shaped with maturity. Gills close to crowded, sometimes forked at stem, whitish-yellow becoming pinkish-orange and turning tannish in maturity. Latex creamy-white and moderately voluminous. Color does not change. Stipe is pinkish-yellow and somewhat scrobiculate and tapered at the base. Spores are cream to pale yellowish. Associated with birch and hemlock. Can be found in summer and fall. Odor is somewhat fruity. Taste is acrid. Toxic. Lactarius pubescens is paler and has smaller spores.

Lactarius torminosus var. nordmanensis Smith

Latex slowly turns pale yellow and stains flesh yellow. Extremely acrid taste.

Lactarius trivialis

"Common Milk Cap”, Viscid brownish-lilac cap and stem. Cream gills becoming ochre and somewhat decurrent. Viscid, thick stipe, concolorous with cap, becoming hollow and water-logged. Abundant latex mild, then acrid drying gray-green on the gills.  Under conifers and birches at higher elevations.  Spores pale yellow.  Edible. 

 Lactarius uvidus (Fries)

Initially has a convex, viscid beige to gray-violet zoned cap that becomes flat and centrally depressed. Cream gills are forked at stipe apex. Watery white latex turns violet on exposure to air. Paler stipe with potholes becomes hollow with age. Found in mixed forests. Slightly bitter-acrid. Inedible.

Lactarius vietus (Fries)

Pale tan to pinkish-gray cap, viscid at first, sometimes with flesh colored or yellow tints, convex with incurved paler margin, becoming flat to sometimes funnel-shaped, with central umbo or point; moderate size of 1-3", crowded off-white to buff attached to slightly decurrent gills; latex is white, but dries in 20 minutes to brown or olive and stains gills and flesh brown. Whitish to cream or pale yellow spore print. Paler fragile stipe. Acrid taste and considered inedible by some, or edible if boiled first. Found in autumn especially in damp areas with sphagnum moss. Mycorrhizal with birch.'Vietus' means 'shrunken'. Named by Fries. Somewhat like Lactarius uvidus, which has mild white milk and to L. mammosus.

 Lactarius vinaceorufescens

Buff-pinkish cinnamon azonate to slightly zonate convex cap with inrolled margin becoming flat with central sticky depression and sub-downy margin. Off-white crowded attached to slightly decurrent narrow gills that develop wine-red spots and stains. White latex turns sulphur-yellow on exposure to air. Stem is paler than cap but becoming darker and spotted with maturity. Spore print is whitish-yellow. Mycorrhizal with pines and conifers in general. Found from August through October. Named by Hessler and Smith. 'Vinaceorufescens' means developing wine-red color'. Latex is bitter to acrid. Inedible. Poisonous.

Lactifluus volemus

Medium sized dry convex orange-brown smooth to slightly bumpy cap with a shallow darker central depression and inrolled margin becoming somewhat funnel-shaped. Cream-white gills are attached to subdecurrent, close and are forked at the margin. Stem color is paler than cap, whitish at the apex and becomes hollow with age. Copious white latex discolors flesh tan to brownish. Flesh bruises brown on handling. Latex is sticky and stains hands brown. Spore print is white. Associated with hardwoods, especially oak, and conifers. Has odor of decaying fish and a mild taste. Choice edible.

 

fences and assigned to clades